Do We Have Valid Country-Level Measures of Personality?
While country-level differences in psychometric intelligence and school achievement are used increasingly in cross-cultural research, far less is known about country-level differences in personality. This article summarizes cross-country research with measures of the Big Five personality dimensions. The conclusion is that these measures have limited reliability and validity when used at the level of country averages. Possible reasons and remedies for this situation are discussed.Download PDF