Sex Differences in Pain Perception: A Biological Perspective
The sense of pain is important in conveying information about the external environment and internal bodily function. Clinical and experimental data clearly demonstrates sex-based differences in behaviors, including the perception of pain. The source of these differences is likely intrinsically mediated, such as differences in brain structure and function related to gonadal hormones. Although it is possible that social-cultural influences may also impact sex differences in pain perception, the preclinical experimental data suggests that much of the differences are due to biology rather than environment.